Adult Psychiatry



Behavioral health disorders affect about one in five American adults, according to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Although many of these disorders are common and can be serious, they are treatable – and recovery is possible. Behavioral health disorders include mental health and substance use disorders: Mental health disorders cause changes in a person’s mood, thinking, or behavior. They affect how well people function in relating to others and making decisions in work, school, or home life. Mental health disorders can occur once, return intermittently, or continue over time. Substance use disorders develop when continued alcohol or drug use significantly impairs a person’s ability to function well at work, school, or home. These disorders can be mild, moderate, or severe and can cause health problems or disability. Our skilled behavioral health professionals, including board-certified psychiatrists, offer safe, effective treatment for adults who have mental health and substance use disorders.


● Depression
● Anxiety
● Schizophrenia
● OCD
● Phobias
● Adjustment Disorder
● Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
● Eating Disorder




Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) features a pattern of unwanted thoughts and fears (obsessions) that lead you to do repetitive behaviors (compulsions). These obsessions and compulsions interfere with daily activities and cause significant distress.
You may try to ignore or stop your obsessions, but that only increases your distress and anxiety. Ultimately, you feel driven to perform compulsive acts to try to ease your stress. Despite efforts to ignore or get rid of bothersome thoughts or urges, they keep coming back. This leads to more ritualistic behavior — the vicious cycle of OCD.



Phobias

Phobias are an overwhelming and unreasonable fear of objects or situations that pose little real danger but provoke anxiety and avoidance. Unlike the brief anxiety you may feel when giving a speech or taking a test, specific phobias are long lasting, cause intense physical and psychological reactions, and can affect your ability to function normally at work, at school or in social settings.Common categories of specific phobias are a fear of:

• Situations, such as airplanes, enclosed spaces or going to school
• Nature, such as thunderstorms or heights
• Animals or insects, such as dogs or spiders
• Blood, injection or injury, such as needles, accidents or medical procedures
• Others, such as choking, vomiting, loud noises or clowns. No matter what specific phobia you have, it’s likely to produce these types of reactions:
• An immediate feeling of intense fear, anxiety and panic when exposed to or even thinking about the source of your fear
• Awareness that your fears are unreasonable or exaggerated but feeling powerless to control them
• Worsening anxiety as the situation or object gets closer to you in time or physical proximity
• Doing everything possible to avoid the object or situation or enduring it with intense anxiety or fear
• Difficulty functioning normally because of your fear.

Causes
• Much is still unknown about the actual cause of specific phobias.
• Causes may include:
• Negative experiences. Many phobias develop as a result of having a negative experience or panic attack related to a specific object or situation.
• Genetics and environment. There may be a link between your own specific phobia and the phobia or anxiety of your parents — this could be due to genetics or learned behavior.
• Brain function. Changes in brain functioning also may play a role in developing specific phobias.

Risk factors

These factors may increase your risk of specific phobias:

• Your age. Specific phobias can first appear in childhood, usually by age 10, but can occur later in life.
• Your relatives. If someone in your family has a specific phobia or anxiety, you’re more likely to develop it, too. This could be an inherited tendency, or children may learn specific phobias by observing a family member’s phobic reaction to an object or a situation.
• Your temperament. Your risk may increase if you’re more sensitive, more inhibited or more negative than the norm.
• A negative experience. Experiencing a frightening traumatic event, such as being trapped in an elevator or attacked by an animal, may trigger the development of a specific phobia.
• Learning about negative experiences. Hearing about negative information or experiences, such as plane crashes, can lead to the development of a specific phobia.
• Physical reactions and sensations, including sweating, rapid heartbeat, tight chest or difficulty breathing
• Feeling nauseated, dizzy or fainting around blood or injuries.



Adjustment disorder

Adjustment disorder is an excessive reaction to a stressful or traumatic event. Stressors could be a relationship issue, job problem, health change, or any other negative or positive life event. Symptoms improve with time. The main treatment is talk therapy, but some providers might recommend medications like anti-anxiety drugs.Some examples include:

• Death of a family member or friend.
• Relationship issues, including breakups, marital problems and divorce.
• Getting married; having a baby.
• Serious health issues.
• School issues.
• Financial difficulties.
• Work issues (job loss, failing to meet goals).
• Living in a crime-ridden neighborhood.
• Retiring.
• Disaster or unexpected tragedy.

Your personality, temperament, well-being, life experiences and family history are all also thought to play a role in the possible development of adjustment disorder.
Common behavioral or emotional symptoms:

• Acting rebellious, destructive, reckless or impulsive.
• Being anxious or agitated, feeling trapped, hopeless.
• Crying easily.
• Trouble concentrating.
• Being withdrawn or isolated; feeling sad; lacking energy or enthusiasm; loss of self-esteem.
• Loss of interest in everyday activities.
• Changes in eating habits.
• Feeling overwhelmed and stressed.
• Abusing alcohol or drugs.
• Having suicidal thoughts or behaviors.



Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder in which people interpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions, and extremely disordered thinking and behavior that impairs daily functioning, and can be disabling.
People with schizophrenia require lifelong treatment. Early treatment may help get symptoms under control before serious complications develop and may help improve the long-term outlook.

Schizophrenia involves a range of problems with thinking (cognition), behavior and emotions. Signs and symptoms may vary, but usually involve delusions, hallucinations or disorganized speech, and reflect an impaired ability to function. Symptoms may include:

Delusions. These are false beliefs that are not based in reality. For example, you think that you’re being harmed or harassed; certain gestures or comments are directed at you; you have exceptional ability or fame; another person is in love with you; or a major catastrophe is about to occur. Delusions occur in most people with schizophrenia.

Hallucinations. These usually involve seeing or hearing things that don’t exist. Yet for the person with schizophrenia, they have the full force and impact of a normal experience. Hallucinations can be in any of the senses, but hearing voices is the most common hallucination.

Disorganized thinking (speech). Disorganized thinking is inferred from disorganized speech. Effective communication can be impaired, and answers to questions may be partially or completely unrelated. Rarely, speech may include putting together meaningless words that can’t be understood, sometimes known as word salad.

Extremely disorganized or abnormal motor behavior. This may show in a number of ways, from childlike silliness to unpredictable agitation. Behavior isn’t focused on a goal, so it’s hard to do tasks. Behavior can include resistance to instructions, inappropriate or bizarre posture, a complete lack of response, or useless and excessive movement.

Negative symptoms. This refers to reduced or lack of ability to function normally. For example, the person may neglect personal hygiene or appear to lack emotion (doesn’t make eye contact, doesn’t change facial expressions or speaks in a monotone). Also, the person may lose interest in everyday activities, socially withdraw or lack the ability to experience pleasure.

Symptoms can vary in type and severity over time, with periods of worsening and remission of symptoms. Some symptoms may always be present.
In men, schizophrenia symptoms typically start in the early to mid-20s. In women, symptoms typically begin in the late 20s. It’s uncommon for children to be diagnosed with schizophrenia and rare for those older than age 45.
When to see a doctor:
People with schizophrenia often lack awareness that their difficulties stem from a mental disorder that requires medical attention. So it often falls to family or friends to get them help.

Helping someone who may have schizophrenia

If you think someone you know may have symptoms of schizophrenia, talk to him or her about your concerns. Although you can’t force someone to seek professional help, you can offer encouragement and support and help your loved one find a qualified doctor or mental health professional.
If your loved one poses a danger to self or others or can’t provide his or her own food, clothing, or shelter, you may need to call other emergency responders for help so that your loved one can be evaluated by a mental health professional.
In some cases, emergency hospitalization may be needed.



Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that’s triggered by a terrifying event — either experiencing it or witnessing it. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event.
Most people who go through traumatic events may have temporary difficulty adjusting and coping, but with time and good self-care, they usually get better. If the symptoms get worse, last for months or even years, and interfere with your day-to-day functioning.
Intrusive memories
Symptoms of intrusive memories may include:

• Recurrent, unwanted distressing memories of the traumatic event
• Reliving the traumatic event as if it were happening again (flashbacks)
• Upsetting dreams or nightmares about the traumatic event
• Severe emotional distress or physical reactions to something that reminds you of the traumatic event
• Avoidance
• Symptoms of avoidance may include:
• Trying to avoid thinking or talking about the traumatic event
• Avoiding places, activities or people that remind you of the traumatic event
• Negative changes in thinking and mood
• Symptoms of negative changes in thinking and mood may include:
• Negative thoughts about yourself, other people or the world
• Hopelessness about the future
• Memory problems, including not remembering important aspects of the traumatic event
• Difficulty maintaining close relationships
• Feeling detached from family and friends
• Lack of interest in activities you once enjoyed
• Difficulty experiencing positive emotions
• Feeling emotionally numb

Changes in physical and emotional reactions
Symptoms of changes in physical and emotional reactions (also called arousal symptoms) may include:

• Being easily startled or frightened
• Always being on guard for danger
• Self-destructive behavior, such as drinking too much or driving too fast
• Trouble sleeping
• Trouble concentrating
• Irritability, angry outbursts or aggressive behavior
• Overwhelming guilt or shame

For children 6 years old and younger, signs and symptoms may also include:

• Re-enacting the traumatic event or aspects of the traumatic event through play
• Frightening dreams that may or may not include aspects of the traumatic event
• Intensity of symptoms
• PTSD symptoms can vary in intensity over time. You may have more PTSD symptoms when you’re stressed in general, or when you come across reminders of what you went through. For example, you may hear a car backfire and relive combat experiences. Or you may see a report on the news about a sexual assault and feel overcome by memories of your own assault.
• When to see a doctor
• If you have disturbing thoughts and feelings about a traumatic event for more than a month, if they’re severe, or if you feel you’re having trouble getting your life back under control, talk to your doctor or a mental health professional. Getting treatment as soon as possible can help prevent PTSD symptoms from getting worse.
• If you have suicidal thoughts

If you or someone you know has suicidal thoughts, get help right away through one or more of these resources:

• Reach out to a close friend or loved one.
• Make an appointment with your doctor or a mental health professional.



Depression in Old People

An old person may be depressed if, for more than two weeks, he or she has felt sad, down or miserable most of the time or has lost interest or pleasure in most of his or her usual activities, and similar to anxiety, has experienced several of the signs and symptoms across at least three of the categories below.
It’s important to note that everyone experiences some of these symptoms from time to time and it may not necessarily mean that the person is depressed. Equally, not every person who is experiencing depression will have all of these symptoms.
Older people with depression tend to present with more symptoms from the physical category compared to the other categories. So an older person is more likely to present to their GP with various physical complaints and difficulty sleeping rather than complaints of sadness or low mood.
Different language may also be used when older people refer to their depression. Instead of describing ‘sadness’, for example, they may talk about ‘their nerves’.


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Nerve and Mind is a world-class private center for cutting edge neuromodulation in Ranchi, Jharkhand, using universally-renowned techniques. We help heal people suffering from common psychiatric illnesses such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, phobias, obsessions, somatoform disorders, ADHD, mental retardation, etc. We help you heal in diseases such as schizophrenia and a variety of psychotic illnesses.

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